Prohormone & Supplement Ingredients:

R-Lipoic Acid (RLA)

Lipoic acid is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid. The carbon atom at C6 is chiral and the molecule exists as two enantiomers R-(+)-lipoic acid (RLA) and S-(-)-lipoic acid (SLA) and as a racemic mixture R/S-lipoic acid (R/S-LA). Only the R-(+)-enantiomer exists in nature and is an essential cofactor of four mitochondrial enzyme complexes.

Endogenously synthesized RLA is essential for life and aerobic metabolism. Both RLA and R/S-LA are available as over-the-counter nutritional supplements and have been used nutritionally and clinically since the 1950s.

Lipoic acid restored liver glycogen and the sulfhydryl content in physiological and experimental hepato-pathologic conditions, but was ineffective in treating portal cirrhosis or alloxan-induced diabetes. Dr P. Introzzi (University of Pavia) presented case histories of four cases of hepatic cirrhosis, two of congestive heart failure and two of chronic hepatitis. One case of hepatic cirrhosis and both cases of chronic hepatitis responded favorably.

LA was shown to be hepatoprotective, improve liver circulation, treat chronic liver diseases, various liver diseases such as jaundice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatic coma, diabetes, alter carbohydrate metabolism, diabetic neuropathy, alter histidine metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis, coronary atherosclerosis, ethionine-damaged liver, experimentally reduce voluntary alcohol intake, and augment potassium tolerance.

Since the mid-1950s the overlapping nutritional and clinical uses of Lipoic acid have been recognized and commercially developed. The original rationale for using R/S-lipoic acid (LA) as a nutritional supplement was that endogenous RLA was known to have biochemical properties like a B-vitamin (acting as a substrate or co-factor essential for enzyme function). It was also recognized that lower endogenous concentrations of RLA were found in tissues of humans with various diseases and lower levels of RLA were found in the 24 hour urine of patients with various diseases than in healthy subjects.

The exact mechanisms of how RLA levels decline with age and in various progressive diseases is unknown. In addition, microbial assays used to quantify LA were essentially stereospecific for RLA (100% active for RLA, 0% activity for SLA) so it was believed that SLA was essentially inert or of very low biological activity. This was proven false by Gal who demonstrated stereospecific toxicity of the S-enantiomer in thiamine-deficient rats.

Lipoic acid was recognized to have antioxidant potential in 1959 and was used as a preservative for lard and cooking oils but it would take another 40 years for this property to gain significant public attention and application in maintaining or restoring human health.

Japanese and German manufactured R/S-LA became available as a nutritional supplement in the US in the late 80?s and sales and use grew slowly and steadily throughout the 1990s as interest in antioxidants and free radicals grew due to recognition of the roles of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species in health, disease and the aging process.

Demand grew for RLA along with R/S-LA after several papers by research group of Professor Bruce Ames (from UC Berkeley) found RLA and acetyl carnitine reversed age-related markers in old rats to youthful levels.

Today R/S-LA and RLA are widely available as over-the-counter nutritional supplements in the United States in the form of capsules, tablets and aqueous liquids and have been branded as antioxidants. In Japan LA is marketed primarily as a "weight loss" and "energy" supplement.

RLA may function in vivo like a B-vitamin and at higher doses like plant derived nutrients such as curcumin, sulphoraphane, resveratrol, other nutritional substances that induce phase II detoxification enzymes, thus acting as cytoprotective agents.

A recent human pharmacokinetic study of RLA demonstrated that the maximum co
Supplements with this ingredient:
Forged: ATD (Test Boosters/Hormone Regulation)
Na-R-ALA (On Cycle Support)

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