Stage II Evolution PCT Rejuvenation Information (Post Cycle Support)

Stage II Evolution PCT Rejuvenation by


Ratings
Ingredients
Manufactured by:
Helica Pharm

Serving Size: 6 Capsules
Servings per Container: 30

This product also contains the following, which we are working on writing up:
Zinc Citrate 60 mg
25R-spirostan-5A-diol-6-one-3-one
(3,4 Divanillyltetrahydrofuran
Maca Root
Cnidium
Belizean Man Vine
5-methyl-7-methoxy-isoflavone
20-Beta-hydroxyecdysterone

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3-beta-hydroxyetioallocholan-5-ene-17-one (DHEA)

3-beta-hydroxyetioallocholan-5-ene-17-one should actually be 3-beta-hydroxyetioallocholen-5-ene-17-one and is the compound nomenclature for DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone). DHEA dhea is a a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands and a precursor to androstenedione. It can convert into the androgen testosterone, but it also can convert into estrone, and estradiol. It's too weak to really make a difference in absolute testosterone levels.

DHEA has therapeutic uses and is an unlikely candidate for abuse, as research has demonstrated that it's not much of a muscle-builder. Although DHEA can be converted to testosterone in the body, it's not a primary source of the hormone in men.

DHEA might fit the description of "the ONLY real PROHORMONE still available today," but will it give you "extreme gains in strength and size" or "skyrocketing testosterone levels" as suggested in ads for Methyl 1-D? Not likely. Even in large doses, these effects have never been demonstrated.

"The dietary supplements androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenediol are precursors in the endogenous production of testosterone. The efficacy and safety of these prohormones are not well established but are promoted to have the same androgenic effects on building muscle mass and strength as anabolic-androgenic steroids. Studies have demonstrated repeatedly that acute and long-term administration of these oral testosterone precursors does not effectively increase serum testosterone levels and fails to produce any significant changes in lean body mass, muscle strength, or performance improvement compared with placebo." (Pediatr Clin North Am. 2007 Aug;54(4):787-96).

Androsta-3,5-Diene-7,17-Dione (Arimistane)

This is being marketed as an Armoatase Inhibitor (AI) and cortisol inhibitor.

It's a metabolite of 7-Keto DHEA. The usual dosage of 7 Keto is 100-200mg, but this is not 7 Keto, it is 7 Keto DHEA. They're different.

This from Patrick Arnold over at Prohormoe Forum.com:
"The whole family of 7-oxygenated dhea metabolites are fascinating compounds, for many reasons other than aromatase inhibition. The compound under discussion here is not a major metabolite though, and so its very unlikely you could acheive therapeutic drug levels in your body by ingesting any reasonable amount of 7-keto"

From all the research I did, it would appear as though the jury is still out on this as far as to whether or not it actually does what the marketers claim.

There were some in vitro (lab test) that show AI properties, but no studies yet as to whether or not it translates into real life.

Avena Sativa (Common Oat)

The common oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name. While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed.

Oats are most commonly rolled or crushed into oatmeal or ground into oat flour. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but may also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies, and oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli and granola. Oats may also be consumed raw, and cookies with raw oats are becoming popular.

In Britain, oats used for brewing beer. Oatmeal stout is one variety brewed using a percentage of oats for the wort. A cold, sweet drink called Avena made of ground oats and milk is a popular refreshment throughout Latin America.

Oat bread was first manufactured in Britain, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899. In Scotland, a dish called sowans was made by soaking the husks from oats for a week, so that the fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off, boiled and eaten. Oats are also widely used there as a thickener in soups, as barley or rice might be used in other countries.

Oat extract can also be used to soothe skin conditions. It is the principal ingredient for the Aveeno line of products.

Oat grass has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, including to help balance the menstrual cycle, treat dysmenorrhoea, and for osteoporosis and urinary tract infections.

Oats are generally considered healthful. The discovery of the healthy cholesterol-lowering properties has led to wider appreciation of oats as human food.

Oats contain more soluble fibre than any other grain, resulting in slower digestion and an extended sensation of fullness. One type of soluble fibre, beta-glucans, has proven to help lower cholesterol.

Oats are the only cereal containing a globulin or legume-like protein, avenalin, as the major (80%) storage protein. The more typical cereal proteins, such as gluten and zein, are prolamines (prolamins). The minor protein of oat is a prolamine, avenin.

Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein, which World Health Organization research has shown is equal to meat, milk, and egg protein. The protein content of the hull-less oat kernel (groat) ranges from 12 to 24%, the highest among cereals.

Coeliac disease (celiac disease) is often associated with the ingestion of a group of proteins labelled prolamines, or more commonly, gluten. Oats lack many of the prolamines found in wheat; however, oats do contain avenin. Avenin is a prolamine that is toxic to the intestinal mucosa of avenin-sensitive individuals, and can trigger a reaction.

The most recent research indicates that some cultivars of oat can be a safe part of a gluten-free diet, because different varieties of oat have different levels of toxicity. Although oats do contain avenin, there are several studies suggesting that this may not be problematic for all coeliacs.

Bulbine Natalensis

The first compnay to release Bulbine Natalensis as a muscle bulding supplement was Ruthless Inc. So if anyone else tells you they were 'first', they aren't being honest. And if they aren't being honest about that, what else are they not being honest about?

Bulbine Natalensis is an herb that's been recently studied for use as a libido enhancer, testosterone booster, estrogen reducer and as an herbal remedy for erectile dysfunction.

In traditional folk medicine, the leaves, roots, and sap are all used for a variety of ailments, everything from bug stings, mosquito bites, blisters, cold sores, mouth ulcers, and cracked skin to to soothing sunburn, disinfecting cuts, and to speed the healing of bruises.

A rodent study was performed by the Centre for Phytomedicine Research, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa. Rodents receiving Bulbine Natalensis had a serum testosterone level equal to 347% of the control group; in that same group, estrogen was 35% lower.

Although this herb is new to the market, it has been used to boost testosterone levels in humans, while lowering estrogen levels. While no clinical studies have been performed examining these effects in humans, its use has been validated in non-clinical settings. This means, to me, it's validity is unverified.

Like most supplements, you can read as many rave reviews online as you can reviews taht slam it. No human trials to speak of and I couldn't find reports of any bloosdwork being do to see if this works or not.

Personally, I staty away from stuff that's unproven. I'd rather spend my money on something I know works.

Cissus Quadrangularis

Also know as: Asthisonhara, Chadhuri, Chaudhari, Cissus, Cissus Extract, Cissus Formula, Cissus Formulation, C. Quadrangularis, Cissus Quadrangularis, Cissus Quadrangularis Extract, CORE, CQ, CQE, CQR-300, Hadjod, Hadjora, Harbhanga, Harsankari, Hasjora, Kandavela, Mangaroli, Nalleru, Namunungwa, Phet Cha Sung Khaat, Phet Sang Kat, Phet Sangkhat, Pirandai, Quadrangularis, Samroi To, San Cha Khuat, Vajravalli, Vedhari, Veld Grape, Veldt-grape, Vitis Quadrangularis, Winged Treebine.

Cissus quadrangularis is a succulent vine from Africa and Asia. All parts of the plant are used for medicine. It is a rich source of carotenoids, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid. Compounds that act as receptor antagonists of glucocorticoids have reduced the healing time of broken bones 30 to 50 percent in clinical trials. It has also been used to treat obesity and associated oxidative stress. Its bactericidal effects on Helicobacter pylori hold promise as an effective treatment of gastric ulcers and preventative of stomach cancer in conjunction with NSAID therapy.

Test tube studies and research in animals show that it has antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. It might have activity against the organism that causes malaria. Athletes claim ciccus provides joint protection and reduces joint pain. Often used in conjunction with 'dry' anabolic compounds.

Some specific commercial products containing Cissus quadrangularis seem to be safe when used appropriately in adults, short-term for up to 6-8 weeks. Some people who took these products experience side effects such as headache, flatulence, dry mouth, diarrhea, and insomnia, but there is not enough information to know how often these side effects might occur. Long-term safety is not known.

Do not take Cissus quadrangularis if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Diindolylmethane (DIM)

Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a stable indole found in cruciferous vegetables which promotes a beneficial estrogen metabolism in both women and men. There are also indication that is possesses anti-cancer properties, and as well as being an anti-viral.

The National Cancer Institute of the United States has begun clinical trials of DIM to look at its anti-cancer properties. DIM is also being looked at as treatment for viral infections and antibiotic resistant bacteria.

DIM is currently used to treat Recurring Respiratory Papillomatosis, a rare respiratory disease with tumors in the upper respiratory tracts caused by the human papilloma virus. DIM is also in Phase III clinical trials for cervical dysplasia, a pre-cancerous condition also caused by the human papilloma virus. Similarly, it has been studied and shown promising results as a immunostimulant against HPV.

As a dimer of indole-3-carbinol, diindolylmethane promotes beneficial estrogen metabolism in both genders by reducing 16-hydroxy estrogen metabolites and increasing the formation of 2-hydroxy estrogen metabolites.

There are claims that Diindolylmethane is the most active cruciferous substance for promoting beneficial estrogen metabolism in women and men. DIM is formed from its precursor indole, Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), after the enzymatic release of I3C from parent glucosinolates. Early experiments demonstrated animal diets with added DIM prevented chemically induced cancer.

Pure DIM was first used in 1987 as a dietary supplement in animals, was shown to be non-toxic, and to be a breast cancer preventative. The mechanisms by which DIM prevents cancer in animals has subsequently been shown to involve a reduction in activity of the estrogen receptor system, promotion of beneficial estrogen metabolism, and support for selective apoptosis, or "programmed cell death" which removes damaged cells.

Supplemental use of DIM in humans is effective in adjusting the pathways of estrogen metabolism to favor the production of 2-hydroxy estrogen metabolites. These shifts in estrogen metabolites were significant and showed an approximate 75% increase in production of 2-hydroxyestrone and a 50% decrease in 16-hydroxyestrone. An increased proportion of 2-hydroxy metabolites is correlated to protection from breast cancer. Case-control studies have documented that low levels of 2-hydroxy metabolites are associated with various types of cancers in both menand women.

DIM is unique among all phytonutritionals with regard to its ability to favorably modify estrogen metabolism in the direction of greater 2-hydroxy estrogen production.

So I found research that claim DIM is an:

aromatase inhibitor
anti-estrogen
estrogen convertor

Which one is it really? I'm afraid I'm not sure.

Fadogia Agrestis

Taken from WebMD.com on Fadogia Agrestis Fadogia agrestis is a plant from Nigeria. The stem is used to make medicine. People take Fadogia agrestis to treat ED (erectile dysfunction, impotence), increase sex drive, improve athletic performance, and support body building. Fadogia agrestis is also used to treat malaria. How does it work? Fadogia agrestis is becoming popular among athletes and body builders as an alternative to anabolic steroids. Promoters point to research in animals that shows Fadogia agrestis might increase sexual behaviors and raise the level of the male hormone testosterone. But no one knows if Fadogia agrestis has these effects in people. Overall, there isn?t enough information to know how Fadogia agrestis might work for any medical condition.

Fenugreek

Fenugreek is a plant in the family Fabaceae used both as an herb (the leaves) and as a spice (the seed).

Fenugreek seeds are a rich source of the polysaccharide galactomannan and saponins such as diosgenin, yamogenin, gitogenin, tigogenin, and neotigogens. Other bioactive constituents of fenugreek include mucilage, volatile oils, and alkaloids such as choline and trigonelline.

Due to its estrogen-like properties, fenugreek has been found to help increase libido and lessen the effect of hot flashes and mood fluctuations that are common symptoms of menopause and PMS. Recent studies have shown that Fenugreek helps lower blood glucose and cholestrol levels, and may be an effective treatment for both type 1 and 2 diabetes. Fenugreek is also being studied for its cardiovascular benefits.

Fenugreek seed is widely used as a milk producing agent by nursing mothers to increase breast milk supply. Studies have shown fenugreek is a potent stimulator of breastmilk production. It can be found in capsule form in many health food stores.

Several human intervention trials demonstrated that the antidiabetic effects of fenugreek seeds ameliorate most metabolic symptoms associated with type-1 and type-2 diabetes in both humans and relevant animal models by reducing serum glucose and improving glucose tolerance.
medicine.

L-lysine

Lysine, or L-lysine, is an essential amino acid, meaning it's necessary for human health, but the human body can't manufacture it and must get it fro food or supplements.

Lysine is important for proper growth and plays an essential role in the production of carnitine, a nutrient responsible for converting fatty acids into energy and helping to lower cholesterol.

Lysine appears to help the body absorb calcium, and it plays an important role in the formation of collagen, important for bones and connective tissues including skin, tendon, and cartilage.

Protein rich foods are good sources of lysine. Meat, cheese, certain fish such as cod and sardines, nuts, eggs, soybeans, spirulina, fenugreek seed, brewer's yeast, beans and other legumes, and dairy products are good sources of lysine. Many nuts also contain lysine along with arginine.

Long Jack (Eurycoma Longifolia, Tongkat Ali, Pasak Bumi)

Long Jack (Eurycoma longifolia - commonly called tongkat ali or pasak bumi) is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos.

Even though there are other legitimate medical areas of interest in Eurycoma longifolia, most Southeast Asians consume it for the plant's impact on sexual conduct. Already in 2001, Malaysian scientific researchers opened their peer-reviewed, Medline-archived report on Eurycoma longifolia's effect on lab rats with the statement "that Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali has gained notoriety as a symbol of man's ego and strength by the Malaysian men because it increases male virility and sexual prowess during sexual activities."

Some scientific studies found that it enhances sexual characteristics and performance in rodents. Other laboratory animal tests have produced positive indications, with one extract having been observed to increase sexual activity in mature rats, including arousal, sniffing, and mounting behavior. In an experiment conducted on male rats, it was found that eurycoma longifolia increases sperm count. The authors also reported that the plasma testosterone level of Eurycoma longifolia extract treated rats "was significantly increased when compared with that of the control and infertile animals."

Another group of scientists confirmed that Eurycoma longifolia has the capacity to "reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis." One Medline-indexed journal article cited as result that Eurycoma longifalia had an effect similar to testosterone replacement therapy in counteracting ostereoposis.

In a placebo-controlled human study with healthy young men in a weight-training program, it was found that "the lean body mass of the treatment group showed a significant increment, from 52.26 (7.18) kg to 54.39 (7.43) kg (p = 0.012)." The results of the study were published in the peer-reviewed British Journal of Sports Medicine.

The anabolic impact of Eurycoma longifolia has been confirmed in the animal model, when the size and weight of just one muscle was measured in treated and untreated rats of equal size. "Results showed that 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack significantly increased (p<0.05) the leavator ani muscle".

Because of Eurycoma longifolia's testosterone-enhancing capacity, it has been included in numerous supplements marketed primarily to body building men. In gym circles, Eurycoma longifolia Jack is commonly referred to as Longjack.

Mucuna Pruriens (98% L-Dopa)

Mucuna Pruriens, also known as cowitch or velvet bean, is found in India, Africa, and the Caribbean. It contains a naturally occurring amino acid called L-Dopa which is very beneficial to both athletes and bodybuilders. Mucuna Pruririens supports the release of Luteinizing Hormone which may lead to higher levels of testosterone. Mucuna Pruriens also supports the production of growth hormone, which means more strength, endurance, and recovery. It doesn?t stop there though! Mucuna also may assist with lowering prolactin levels. Elevated prolactin levels leads to a decreased libido, which is the last thing most men want to deal with. Using Mucuna will combat the increase in these levels, keeping your attitude and libido sky high!

Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume known as velvet bean or cowitch and by other common names (see below), found in Africa, India and the Caribbean. The plant is notorious for the extreme itchiness it produces on contact, particularly with the young foliage and the seed pods. It has value in agricultural and horticultural use and has a range of medicinal properties.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucuna_pruriens

Another benefit of Mucuna, is that it can increase the production of HGH (Human Growth Hormone). An increase in HGH levels can increase the body's ability to build lean muscle and break down fat.

Mucuna has also been shown to have diuretic effects. It increases tissue resiliency and improves coordination. Mucuna can also increase testosterone levels, which in turn can lead to increased muscle mass and strength.

In history, Mucuna has been used as an aphrodisiac. It is still used to increase libido in both men and women, and can help with erectile dysfunction. It was also used to treat depression, nervous disorders, and to help improve mental alertness.

http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/southfacts_muc.htm

N-(2-(5-Methoxyindol-3-y)ethyl)acetamide

Here's yet another one I can't find anything on. When I do a search, the Google gods ask me if I'm looking for "N-(2-(5-Methoxyindol-3-ly)ethyl)acetamide". When I search for that, I find listings of companies that sell it, but nothing on what it really is or what it's supposed to do.

Is this an alternate chemical nomenclature for indole-3-carbinol?

Pygeum Africanum

Also know as Pigeum, red stinkwood, African plum, African prune, alumty, iluo, kirah, natal tree, pigeum africanum

The bark of the pygeum contains an oil with many active ingredients. Pygeum bark gained popularity in Europe in the 1700s but had been used long before that by South African tribes. Later the extract of the bark became a popular form for taking this supplement.

Pygeum has been shown to be beneficial in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH.) It is especially helpful in increases urinary function, often limited due to enlarged prostate. Combining this supplement with saw palmetto and stinging nettle increase the effectiveness of each herb.

In animal studies, pygeum showed an increase in the volume and viability of sperm in the semen. This indicates a possible use of this herb for treating male infertility.

Some of the less researched, traditional uses of pygeum include use as an aphrodisiac, fever, impotence, kidney disease, malaria, hair loss, partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), sexual performance, urinary tract infections, inflammation, malaria, prostatic adenoma, prostatitis, and psychosis.

The powdered bark is made into capsules or a liquid extract. The common intake of pygeum is 50 to 200 mg. It can be taken in a single or divided dose. Taking one 100 mg dose has been found just as effective as taking two 50mg doses at different times.

Saw Palmetto (SERENOA REPENS)

Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens, Sabal serrulata) is used popularly in Europe for symptoms associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy (enlargement of the prostate). Although not considered standard of care in the United States, it is the most popular herbal treatment for this condition. Saw palmetto is often combined with nettle extract.

Multiple mechanisms of action have been proposed, and saw palmetto appears to possess 5-?-reductase inhibitory activity (thereby preventing the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone). Hormonal/estrogenic effects have also been reported, as well as direct inhibitory effects on androgen receptors and anti-inflammatory properties.

Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica)

Stinging nettle or common nettle, Urtica dioica, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant, native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and North America, and is the best-known member of the nettle genus Urtica. The plant has many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on its leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles that inject histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation when contacted by humans and other animals. The plant has a long history of use as a medicine and as a food source. In medieval Europe, it was used as a diuretic (to rid the body of excess water) and to treat joint pain.

Stinging nettle has been used for hundreds of years to treat painful muscles and joints, eczema, arthritis, gout, and anemia. Today, many people use it to treat urinary problems during the early stages of benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH, for urinary tract infections, for hay fever (allergic rhinitis), or in compresses or creams for treating joint pain, sprains and strains, tendonitis, and insect bites.

Studies in people suggest that stinging nettle, in combination with other herbs (especially saw palmetto), may be effective at relieving symptoms such as reduced urinary flow, incomplete emptying of the bladder, post urination dripping, and the constant urge to urinate associated with an enlarged prostate. Laboratory studies have shown stinging nettle to be comparable to finasteride (a medication commonly prescribed for BPH) in slowing the growth of certain prostate cells. However, unlike finasteride, the herb does not decrease prostate size.

The leaves and stems of nettle have been used historically to treat arthritis and for sore muscles. Studies have been small and not conclusive, but do suggest some people find relief from joint pain by applying nettle leaf topically to the painful area.

One preliminary human study suggested that nettle capsules helped reduce sneezing and itching in people with hay fever. Researchers think that may be due to nettle's ability to reduce the amount of histamine the body produces in response to an allergen.

Some preliminary animal studies indicate that nettle may lower blood sugar and blood pressure, but there is not enough evidence to say whether this is also true in humans.

Tribulus Terrestris

Tribulus terrestris is one of the most recent herbal supplements claimed to have ergogenic (muscle building) effect, achieved by 'naturally' boosting testosterone levels. Tribulus terrestris (aka puncture weed/vine or caltrops) grows mainly in sandy soil and has a fruit encased in a sharp, spiny burr. The extract from the fruit has been used in herbal medicine as a diuretic, and for colic pains, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol). But the reason we're interested in it is becuase it's also been reputed to increase testosterone levels in animals.

The active agent in Tribulus is thought to be protodioscin, a precursor to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is a precursor to testosterone. Tribulus is also believed to indirectly affect testosterone levels by stimulating the release of leutinizing hormone (LH), which stimulates the natural production of testosterone.

Does Tribulus Terrestris Work? I was only able to find two published studies on the effects of Tribulus terrestris supplementation in humans.

In the first study looked at the effects of Tribulus terrestris supplementation during training on body composition and performance. Fifteen resistance-trained males ingested either 3.21mg per kilogram of bodyweight of either a placebo or Tribulus terrestris for eight weeks during a standardized resistance-training program. Results showed Tribulus terrestris supplementation had no significant effects on changes in mood states, total body weight, percent body fat, or gains in
bench press or leg press. Although LH and testosterone levels were not assessed in this study, results indicated that Tribulus terrestris supplementation of approximately 250mg a day during resistance training had no significant effects.

In the first phase of another study 10 subjects then ingested a placebo or a supplement containing 100mg androstenedione, 50mg DHEA, 250mg Tribulus terrestris, 195mg Chrysin, 100mg Indole-3-carbinol, and 180mg Saw palmetto. Blood samples were obtained every hour for six hours, with results showing significantly increased androstenedione levels. However, no significant differences were between the placebo and anabolic precursor trials in LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, free testosterone, or total testosterone levels. These findings indicate that although anabolic precursors may
increase androstenedione levels, they have no significant effect on other androgenic or estrogenic hormones.

In the second phase of the same study, 20 untrained male subjects participated in a 3-day per week resistance training program for 8 weeks. The subjects took either a placebo or a supplement containing 300mg androstenedione, 150mg DHEA, 750mg Tribulus terrestris, 625mg Chrysin, 300mg Indole-3-carbinol, and 540mg Saw palmetto every day during weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8. Results revealed that Saw palmetto supplementation during training increased fasting androstenedione, estradiol, and estrone levels while decreasing high-density lipoproteins levels. No significant differences were observed in LH, FSH, total testosterone, free testosterone, or estriol levels. There were also no significant differences observed in body composition, muscle fiber diameter, or gains in 1RM strength. These findings suggest Tribulus terrestris at 750mg per day with other anabolic precursors does not significantly affect body composition or training adaptations.

So despite claims, there's no current data supporting the ergogenic value of Tribulus terrestris for resistance-trained athletes.

Ba-BAM!

Vitamin B-6

The primary role of vitamin B6 is to act as a coenzyme to many other enzymes in the body that are involved predominantly in metabolism. This role is performed by the active form, pyridoxal phosphate. This active form is converted from the two other natural forms founds in food: pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

Vitamin B6 is involved in the following metabolic processes:

amino acid, glucose and lipid metabolism

neurotransmitter synthesis

histamine synthesis

hemoglobin synthesis and function

gene expression

Amino acid metabolism

Pyridoxal phosphate is involved in almost all amino acid metabolism, from synthesis to breakdown.

Neurotransmitter synthesis

Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes play a role in the biosynthesis of four important neurotransmitters: serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Serine racemase, which synthesizes the neuromodulator D-serine, is also a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme.

Histamine synthesis

Pyridoxal phosphate is involved in the metabolism of histamine.

Hemoglobin synthesis and function

Pyridoxal phosphate aids in the synthesis of heme and can also bind to two sites on hemoglobin to enhance the oxygen binding of hemoglobin.

Gene expression

It transforms homocysteine into cistation then into cysteine. Pyridoxal phosphate has been implicated in increasing or decreasing the expression of certain genes. Increased intracellular levels of the vitamin will lead to a decrease in the transcription of glucocorticoid hormones. Also, vitamin B6 deficiency will lead to the increased expression of albumin mRNA. Also, pyridoxal phosphate will influence gene expression of glycoprotein IIb by interacting with various transcription factors. The result is inhibition of platelet aggregation.

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)

Vitamin D is well-known for helping to maintain calcium levels and in building strong bones. Vitamin D deficiency can increase the risk of osteoporosis. Elderly who don't get enough vitamin D have weaker muscles and are more prone to falls, which could further increase the risk of fractures.

Recent research has revealed new roles of vitamin D. Many types of cells in the body can use vitamin D to help regulate critical functions. A vitamin D deficiency could result in potential problems such as a weakened immune system and an increased risk of cancer. Impaired immune function could lead to a greater risk of autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis, and heighten succeptibility to some infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Studies also suggest low levels of vitamin D may be linked to heart disease. Other stidies have determined vitamin D plays a role in controlling blood pressure and preventing artery damage.

There is no solid consensus on the amoutn of vitamin D needed. The human body produces vitamin D3 when skin is exposed to sunlight. However, in our indoor oriented world, most indoviduals (especially those in northern climates) don't get enough sun exposure for their bosy to produce adequate vitamin D3. When it comes to supplementation, indoviduals have taken up to 10,000IU daily without adverse effect. Between 2,000IU - 6,000IU appears to be adequate supplementation for the majority of the population.

If you decide to supplement, look for vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) as opposed to vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Vitamin D3 has much more bioavailability than vitamin D2.

I happen to be a big proponent of vitamin D. My wife, especially, has found significant improvement in her seasonal affective disorder by supplementing with vitamin D3.

White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

The White Button Mushroom is common to North America and is available in many different forms from the natural mushroom form used in cooking, to dried forms, tea and as a supplement. The White Button Mushroom is traditionally valued as a source of nutrients for boosting the immune system and helping to fight off respiratory and viral infections. Recent clinical studies have shown positive results in its role as a preventative aid for hormone-sensitive breast cancers and other breast cancers. There is also evidence that it contains a high amount of Vitamin D which can benefit people with deficiencies.

Uses for White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)
  • Boost immune system
  • Manage blood sugar
  • Preventive for hormone-sensitive cancers
  • Colds and Flu
  • Osteoporosis
  • Arthritis
What the White Button Mushroom has:
  • Sodium
  • Vitamin D
  • potassium
  • phosphorus
  • conjugated linoleic acid
  • antioxidants
  • Protocatechuic acid
  • Pyrocatechol
The high levels of potassium, sodium and vitamin D suggest that the White Button Mushroom can be an effective aid in the management of cholesterol and blood sugar levels. It is the recent work done on studying the impact of the Protocatechuic acid and Pyrocatechol contained in the mushroom which is showing positive preventative effects on hormone sensitive cancers. Currently, there is no preference for the body utilizing this aspect of the White Button Mushroom but the high medical dosage amount suggests that it is more realistic to be consumed as a supplement.

There are no known counter indications for consuming White Button Mushroom as a food or supplement, however some people may have sensitivity to the White Button Mushroom in its natural form or be allergic to it in all forms. Before taking White Button Mushroom in a large dosage amount, consult your doctor if you have known allergies or try a small amount first.