Post Cycle Support Information (Post Cycle Support)
Serving Size: 2 Capsules
Servings per Container: 60
Amount Per Serving:
Trans-Resveratrol 50% 1200mg
Quercetin 95% 1200mg
Epimedium (40% Icariin) 500mg
Piperidine 95% 30mg
Other Ingredients: Gelatin, Cellulose
Bottle recommended dosage: 2 capsules in the AM and another 2 capsules in the PM.
Post Cycle Support contains a mix on ingredients intended to restore your natural hormone balance as quickly as possible in order to help you maintain muscular gains.
Trans-Resveratrolis capable of modulating estrogenic receptors as well as controlling aromatase, giving it estrogen control. Research has shown its estrogenic modulation capabilities to increase sperm production by stimulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.
Horny Goat Weed a source of the testosterone mimetic, Icariin. Research on Icariin has shown it to increase circulating testosterone levels as well as improve reproductive organs. In vivo research has shown icariin to metabolize into icaritin and desmethylicariti, which, like resveratrol, are estrogenic receptor antagonists.
Quercetin is the most potent natural inbitor of estrone sulfanase which degrades compounds like resveratrol. This makes not only aids in absorption, but enhances antiestrogenic activity. Piperine enhances the ability of your intestines to absorb nutrients and phytochemicals. Additionally, piperine may also inhibit the glucuronidase enzyme, another enzyme which degrades resveratrol.
Post Cycle Support Ingredients
Epimedium (Horny Goat Weed)Epimedium, also known as Rowdy Lamb Herb, Barrenwort, Bishop's Hat, Fairy Wings, Horny Goat Weed, or Yin Yang Huo, is a genus of about 60 or more species of herbaceous flowering plants in the family Berberidaceae.
Many species of Epimedium are alleged to have aphrodisiac qualities. It is sold as a health supplement, usually in raw herb, tablet, or capsule form and sometimes blended with other supplements. The "active ingredient" in Epimedium is icariin, which can be found in standardized extracts from 5% up to 60% potent.
Icariin is purported to work by increasing levels of nitric oxide, which relax smooth muscle. It has been demonstrated to relax rabbit penile tissue by nitric oxide and PDE-5 activity. Other research has demonstrated that injections of Epimedium extract directly into the penis of the rat results in an increase in penile blood pressure.
Like sildenafil (Viagra), icariin, the active compound in Epimedium, inhibits the activity of PDE-5. Epimedium has been shown to up-regulate genes associated with nitric oxide production and changes in adenosine/guanine monophosphate balance in ways that other PDE5 inhibitors do not.
PiperinePiperine is the alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper and long pepper, along with chavicine (an isomer of piperine). It has also been used in some forms of traditional medicine and as an insecticide.
Piperine has been found to inhibit human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, enzymes important for the metabolism and transport of xenobiotics and metabolites. In animal studies, piperine also inhibited other enzymes important in drug metabolism. By inhibiting drug metabolism, piperine may increase the bioavailability of various compounds and alter the effectiveness of some medications.
Piperine may also have some harmful side effects. Preliminary evidence shows it may be toxic in some circumstances, and may even interfere with reproductive processes, including negative effects on sperm. Piperine at doses higher than 15 mg daily may affect the metabolism of a wide range of drugs. Even lower doses may affect the bodys metabolism of some drugs.
Piperine may also form cancer-causing substances when eaten with nitrates. Experts suggest that people who take piperine supplements should be careful when also eating food that contains nitrates as a preservative.
Not enough human studies have been done to determine the side effects of chronic supplementation with piperine. For the time being, it is a good idea to take 2 days off a week, and one full week off each month from the use of a piperine supplement. It is quite likely that the small amounts of piperine could provide health benefits while larger amounts could be toxic or damaging to the liver or other organs.
QuercetinQuercetin (a flavonol) is a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains. It also may be used as an ingredient in supplements, beverages or foods.
Several studies show quercetin may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and it is being investigated for a wide range of potential health benefits. Quercetin may have inhibitory properties against cancer, prostatitis, heart disease, cataracts, allergies/inflammations, and respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis and asthma. It has also been claimed that quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. An in vitro study showed that quercetin and resveratrol combined inhibited production of fat cells.
Despite preliminary indications of possible medicinal effects, quercetin has neither been confirmed as a specific therapeutic for any condition nor has it been approved by any regulatory agency. A bioavailability study done on rats showed that ingested quercetin is extensively metabolized into non-active phenolic acids, with more than 96% of the ingested amount excreted within 72 hours, indicating actual physiological roles, if they exist, involve quercetin in only minute amounts.
Trans ResveratrolResveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of polyphenol, and a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi.
Resveratrol is currently a topic of numerous animal and human studies into its effects. The effects of resveratrol on the lifespan of many model organisms remain controversial, with uncertain effects in fruit flies, nematode worms, and short-lived fish. In mouse and rat experiments, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering and other beneficial cardiovascular effects of resveratrol have been reported. Most of these results have yet to be replicated in humans.
In the only positive human trial, extremely high doses (3–5 g) of resveratrol in a proprietary formulation designed to enhance its bioavailability have been necessary to significantly lower blood sugar. Despite mainstream press alleging resveratrol's anti-aging effects, there is little present scientific basis for the application of these claims to mammals.
Resveratrol is found in the skin of red grapes and is a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol has also been produced by chemical synthesis or by biotechnological synthesis (metabolic engineered microorganisms) and is sold as a nutritional supplement derived primarily from Japanese knotweed.
Although trans-resveratrol appears to be well-absorbed by humans when taken orally, its bioavailability is relatively low due to its rapid metabolism and elimination. Resveratrol metabolites are primarily detected upon oral exposure to trans-resveratrol. When six healthy men and women took an oral dose of 25 mg of trans-resveratrol, only traces of the unchanged resveratrol were detected in plasma. Plasma concentrations of resveratrol and metabolites peaked around 60 minutes later.
A study in 12 healthy men administered an oral dose of 25 mg of trans-resveratrol per 70 kg of body weight reported that serum concentration of resveratrol and metabolites peaked at 30 minutes after administration. Results of another study suggested that the bioavailability of resveratrol from grape juice, which contains mostly glucosides of resveratrol (piceid), may be even lower than that of trans-resveratrol.
Estrogenic and Anti-estrogenic Activities
Endogenous estrogens are steroid hormones synthesized by humans and other mammals; these hormones bind to estrogen receptors within cells. The estrogen-receptor complex interacts with unique sequences in DNA (estrogen response elements; EREs) to modulate the expression of estrogen-responsive genes. A compound that binds to estrogen receptors and elicits similar responses to endogenous estrogens is considered an estrogen agonist, while a compound that binds estrogen receptors but prevents or inhibits the response elicited by endogenous estrogens is considered an estrogen antagonist.
The chemical structure of resveratrol is very similar to that of the synthetic estrogen agonist, diethylstilbestrol, suggesting that resveratrol might also function as an estrogen agonist. However, in cell culture experiments resveratrol acts as an estrogen agonist under some conditions and an estrogen antagonist under other conditions. In estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, resveratrol acted as an estrogen agonist in the absence of the endogenous estrogen, 17beta-estradiol, but acted as an estrogen antagonist in the presence of 17beta-estradiol.
At present, it appears that resveratrol has the potential to act as an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on such factors as cell type, estrogen receptor isoform (ER alpha or ER beta), and the presence of endogenous estrogens.