Myoplex Original (Chocolate Fudge) Ingredients
Beta-caroteneBeta-carotene is a type of pigment that gives yellow and orange fruits and vegetables (corrots being the most well known) their color. Beta-carotene is also used as a coloring agent.
The human body converts Beta-carotene into vitamin A (retinol). While large amounts of vitamin A taken as supplements can be dangerous, the body only converts as much vitamin A from beta-carotene as it needs.
Beta-carotene is an antioxidant ans can help protect the body from free radicals. Free radicals cause celluar damage through a process known as oxidation. There is evidence that eating more antioxidants naturally through your diet (not supplements) can boost your immune system, protect against free radicals, and even lower your risk of heart disease and cancer.
Info links for Beta-carotene
Biotin (Vitamin H)Biotin, also know as vitamin H, is part of the B complex group of vitamins. B vitamins help the body to convert food into fuel. B complex vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and protein and are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function.
Your body uses biotin to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids. Biotin is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails and is found in many cosmetic products for hair and skin. It's water-soluble, meaning the body doesn't store it. Bacteria in the intestine can make biotin however. It's also found in small amounts in some foods. Biotin is important for normal embryonic growth, making it a critical nutrient during pregnancy.
Biotin deficiency is rare and symptoms include hair loss, dry scaly skin, cracking in the corners of the mouth (called cheilitis), swollen and painful tongue that is magenta in color (glossitis), dry eyes, loss of appetite, fatigue, insomnia, and depression.
Biotin is found in brewer's yeast, cooked eggs (especially egg yolk), sardines, almonds, peanuts, pecans, walnuts, soybeans and other legumes, whole grains, cauliflower, bananas, and mushrooms. Raw egg whites contain a protein called avidin that interferes with the body's absorption of biotin. Less-processed versions of the foods listed above ccontain more biotin.
Adequate daily intakes for biotin:
Infants birth - 6 months: 5mcg
Infants 7 - 12 months: 6mcg
Children 1 - 3 years: 8mcg
Children 4 - 8 years: 12mcg
Children 9 - 13 years: 20mcg
Adolescents 14 - 18 years: 25mcg
Adults 19 years and older: 30mcg
Pregnant females: 30mcg
Breastfeeding females: 35mcg
Info links for Biotin (Vitamin H)
Calcium CaseinateCasein is often listed as sodium caseinate, calcium caseinate or milk protein. Casein is the main protein nearly 80 percent of proteins in cow milk and cheese. It is used as a dietary supplement by bodybuilders and other athletes. Caseinate breaks down at a slower rate than whey protein, thus supplying the body with a sustained protein release over a longer time period.
Caseinate is derived from fresh skim milk and is very high in glutamic acid. It is comprised of 92% protein and, as mentioned above, is very slow to digest. Athletes who require extra protein added to their diets may find many potential benefits from caseinate. Casein proteins stay in the acidic environment of the stomach, releasing helpful muscle-building amino acids for hours longer than other protein powders. Bodybuilders usually take caseinate before bed and with breakfast for that reason. Due to the slow release of proteins, the calcium caseinate can also make you feel full throughout the day, possibly eliminating the desire for unhealthy snacks or unnecessarily high-calorie meals.
Proteins derived from fresh milk are usually high in a glutamic acid, an amino acid essential to building muscles. Amino acids are fuel for a body's metabolism and are created when the body breaks down proteins. Glutamic acids can help not only with feeding the muscles, but with disposing of waste and nitrogen as well.
Info links for Calcium Caseinate
Calcium Pantothenate (Pantothenic Acid)Calcium Pantothenateis (aka Vitamin B5, Pantothenic Acid) is a B-complex vitamin, a white, odorless powder with a sweetish taste and bitter aftertaste. Pantothenic acid occurs everywhere in plant and animal tissue. The richest source is liver. Rice bran and molasses are also good sources. B vitamins are water-soluble, meaning that the body does not store them.
All B vitamins help the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which used by the body for energy. These B complex vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver and also help the nervous system function properly.
Vitamin B5 is critical to the manufacture of red blood cells as well as sex and stress-related hormones produced in the adrenal glands. Vitamin B5 is also important in maintaining a healthy digestive tract and helps the body metabolize other vitamins. Vitamin B5 is also needed for the body to synthesize cholesterol. A derivative of pantothenic acid called pantethine is being studied to see if it may help lower cholesterol levels.
Fresh meats, vegetables, and whole unprocessed grains have more vitamin B5 than refined, canned, and frozen food. The best sources are brewer's yeast, corn, cauliflower, kale, broccoli, tomatoes, avocado, legumes, lentils, egg yolks, beef, organ meats such as liver and kidney, turkey, duck, chicken, milk, split peas, peanuts, soybeans, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, whole-grain breads and cereals, lobster, wheat germ, and salmon.
Vitamin B5 is sold individually under the names pantothenic acid and calcium pantothenate. It's available in a variety of forms including tablets, softgels, and capsules. Recommended daily intakes of dietary vitamin B5:
Infants birth - 6 months: 1.7 mg
Infants 6 months - 1 year: 1.8 mg
Children 1 - 3 years: 2 mg
Children 4 - 8 years: 3 mg
Children 9 - 13 years: 4 mg
Adolescents 14 - 18 years: 5 mg
19 years and older: 5 mg
Pregnant females: 6 mg
Breastfeeding women: 7 mg
CarrageenanCarrageenan is a natural polysaccharide (carbohydrate) extracted from algae or seaweed and is typically used as a thickening agent in place of animal-based products like gelatin. Carrageenan is a common ingredient in many foods, such as milk products like yogurt or chocolate milk. Since it's 100% vegetarian Vegetarians use carrageenan as a thickeing agent in place of products like gelatin, since it is 100% vegetarian.
There are two types of carrageenan, undegraded (food-grade) and degraded (hydrolyzed with acid). Undegraded carrageenan has been used on a huge scale in food production worldwide since the 1930s. Chemically treated, degraded carrageenan however, is a known carcinogen (cancer causing agent) and is not used or permitted in food production, but is frequently used to experimentally induce intestinal inflammation in animal studies.
The safety of carrageenan for use in foods was confirmed at the fifty-seventh meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO in June 200l. The JECFA recommended an ADI of 'not specified', the most favorable ADI a food additive can get. The JECFA review was based on extensive studies, some of which were not addressed in the article that questioned the safety of carrageenan. The JECFA consists of an international panel of expert toxicologists that review data pertaining to food additives and contaminates.
Info links for Carrageenan
- Review of harmful gastrointestinal effects of carrageenan in animal experiments
- A re-evaluation of the role of macrophages in carrageenan-induced immunosuppression
- Spectrum and Possible Mechanism of Carrageenan Cytotoxicity
Chromium ChlorideChromium is an essential mineral found in very low concentrations in the human body. In 1957, researchers discovered a compound extracted from pork kidney called glucose tolerance factor (GTF). Administration of GTF helped diabetic rats use insulin more efficiently. Chromium was later identified as the active component of GTF. Today, researchers believe chromium helps insulin bring glucose from the blood into the cells for energy.
As many as 90% of American diets are low in chromium, but few people are deficient in this important mineral. The elderly, people who indulge in strenuous exercise, those who consume excessive amounts of sugary foods, and pregnant women are most likely to be deficient. Low chromium levels can increase blood sugar, triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood), cholesterol levels, and increase the risk for a number of conditions.
Good sources for chromium include whole grain breads and cereals, lean meats, cheeses, and some spices, such as black pepper and thyme.
Chromium is commercially available in several forms including chromium nicotinate, chromium histidinate, chromium picolinate, chromium-enriched yeast, chromium chloride, and glucose tolerance factor chromium (GTF).
Daily recommended doses
Infants birth - 6 months: 0.2mcg
Infants 7 - 12 months: 5.5mcg
Children 1 - 3 years: 11mcg
Children 4 - 8 years: 15mcg
Males 9 - 13 years: 25mcg
Females 9 - 13 years: 21mcg
Males 14 - 18 years: 35mcg
Females 14 - 18 years: 24mcg
Pregnant females 14 - 18 years: 29mcg
Breast-feeding females 14 - 18 years: 44mcg
Males 19 - 50 years: 35mcg
Males 51 years+: 30mcg
Females 19 - 50 years: 25mcg
Females 50 years+: 20mcg
Pregnant females 19 years+: 30mcg
Breastfeeding females 19 years+: 30mcg
Cocoa Powder, Natural Cocoa Powder, Alkalized cocoa powdersCocoa powder is the end product of a process that removes a significant portion of the fat or cocoa butter from the cocoa bean. The starting cocoa bean material is usually in the form of chocolate liquor. This liquor contains no alcohol and is the roasted cocoa bean material that has been finely ground and refined into a paste that becomes fluid at temperatures above 104°F (40°C). This fluid is then subjected to a pressing process the removes most of the fat or cocoa butter from the liquor. The resulting material is called cocoa press cake and contains from 10-12% residual cocoa butter. This press cake is then mechanically broken into smaller pieces and ground into a fine powder commonly known as cocoa powder.
Natural cocoa powder comes from pressing cocoa beans with no additional modifications.
Alkalized cocoa powders (AKA Dutched coca powder) comes from chocolate liquid paste that's been treated with mild alkali solutions to raise the pH. Alkalization can be used to create a range of dark brown and red-brown colors that add desirable appearances to some food products that contain cocoa powders. Alkalization can improve taste by reducing some of the sourness and bitterness associated with natural cocoa powders. The alkalization of cocoa powder can also improve the solubility of cocoa powder for better beverage mixing.
Info links for Cocoa Powder, Natural Cocoa Powder, Alkalized cocoa powders
Corn MaltodextrinA common additive, maltodextrin is classified as a sweet polysaccharide. While containing sweet qualities, maltodextrin contains fewer calories than sugar. Corn maltodextrin is made from corn startch.
Maltodextrin is produced by cooking down the starch. During the cooking process, natural enzymes and acids help to break down the starch even further. The end result is a white powder that contains roughly four calories per gram, and extremely small amounts of fiber, fat, and protein.
The sweet taste of maltodextrin makes is a closer approximation to the taste of sugar, which makes it ideal for use in sweetening teas, coffee, and powdered soft drinks. Maltodextrin can also be used as a thickening agent in a number of sauces and salad dressings.
Cottonseed FiberCottonseed Fiber is inert, non-caloric, and tasteless. It's primarily used in baked goods, spices, pasta, cheese products, extruded products, and wafer products. It's used as a dietary fiber supplement to add bulk to food.
Other than that, i can't find much else on it....
CyanocobalaminCyanocobalamin is a common vitamer of the vitamin B12 family. A form of vitamin B12 called hydroxocobalamin is produced by bacteria, and then changed to cyanocobalamin in the process of being purified in activated charcoal columns after being separated from the bacterial cultures. Cyanocobalamin is the vitamin B12 that is found in most meat and meat products, and in most vitamin B12 supplements.
Cyanocobalamin usually does not even occur in nature, and is not one of the forms of the vitamin that are directly used in the body. However, animals and humans can convert cyanocobalamin to active (cofactor) forms of the vitamin.
Vitamin B12 is important for growth, cell reproduction, blood formation, and protein and tissue synthesis. Sources include organ meats, meat, fish, eggs, milk and cheese. Vitamin B12 is not found in vegetables. The liver is the main storage site of vitamin B12. The human body stores about 4mcg of Vitamin B12 (2 in the liver and 2 elsewhere). These stores are enough to last for one to three years.
RDA is very small, being just 1mcg daily for adults and as little as .2mcg for children.
Info links for Cyanocobalamin
dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate (Vitamin E)Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant, acts as a co-enzyme in cellular membranes and serves as a scavenger for free radicals.
Dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate is an all-synthetic form of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). This synthesized version exists in equal amounts of eight isomers while the natural extraction from vegetable oils (d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) exists only as one isomer. D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (natural) may be a better alternative to increase tissue levels and retention of vitamin E compared to dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (synthetic).
Vitamin E forms are listed as either plain "tocopherol" or tocopheryl followed by the name of what is attached to it, as in "tocopheryl acetate". The two forms are not greatly different. However, plain tocopherol may be absorbed a little better, while tocopheryl attached forms have a slightly better shelf life.
Vitamin E helps maintains the integrity of the body's intracellular membrane and can protect against heart disease and the development of cancers by enhancing immune function. RDA is 10 mg per day for an adult male, 8 mg/day for and adult female, and 3 mg/day for an infant or toddler.
Folic Acid (Folacin)Folic acid (folate in its natural form) is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Folic acid is the form most often used in vitamin supplements and fortified foods. The human body needs folate to synthesize DNA, repair DNA, and methylate DNA as well as to act as a cofactor in biological reactions involving folate. Children and adults both require folic acid to produce healthy red blood cells and prevent anemia. Leafy vegetables are a principal source, although, in Western diets, fortified cereals and bread may be a larger dietary source.
Folate deficiency is most often caused by a dietary insufficiency. Alcoholism is associated with low dietary intake and diminished absorption of folate, which can lead to folate deficiency. Additionally, certain conditions such as pregnancy or cancer result in increased rates of cell division and metabolism, causing an increase in the body's demand for folate.
Traditionally, the dietary folate requirement was defined as the amount needed to prevent a deficiency severe enough to cause symptoms like anemia. The most recent RDA (1998) was based primarily on the adequacy of red blood cell folate concentrations. Red cell folate has been shown to correlate with liver folate stores. Because pregnancy is associated with a significant increase in cell division and other metabolic processes that require folate coenzymes, the RDA for pregnant women is considerably higher.
Info links for Folic Acid (Folacin)
- Folic Acid
- Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Folate
- Health Professionals Recommendations, Folic Acid, NCBDDD, CDC
- Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults
- Folic Acid The Vitamin That Does Almost Everything
FructooligosaccharidesFructooligosaccharides is a group of oligosaccharides (connected simple sugars). Fructooligosaccharides are commonly used as a sweetener and as a prebiotic dietary supplement. They have been shown to have minimal effect on blood sugar levels when used as sweeteners and can be used to ferment certain good bacteria in the intestines.
Fructooligosaccharides aren't digested by the human body. As a dietary supplement, fructooligosaccharides are used to stimulate beneficial bacteria in the colon in order to aid in proper absorption and assimilation of nutrients. Fructooligosaccharides are non-digestible carbohydrates, so don't impact blood sugar levels.
Excessive fructooligosaccharide consumption can cause intestinal problems or diarrhea, bloating and/or gas. There is some scientific literature showing that fructooligosaccharides also feed the bad bacteria, so over-consumption might hinder the ability of the beneficial bacteria to survive.
High Oleic Sunflower OilThere are several types of sunflower oils produced, such as high linoleic, high oleic and mid oleic. High oleic sunflower oil has at least 82% oleic acid. Sunflower oil also contains lecithin, tocopherols, carotenoids and waxes, has a high vitamin E content, and is a combination of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats with low saturated fat levels.
Oleic acid is a mono-unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid and may be responsible for the blood pressure reducing effects of olive oil.
Magnesium PhosphateAlso know as magnesium
Magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium and phosphate. Various forms have been used as laxatives and antacids. Aside from neutralizing gastric acid, magnesium phosphate also has a laxative effect, which may lead to diarrhea.
Magnesium is involved in more than 300 chemical reactions in your body. It can be used as a laxative for constipation or as an antacid for acid indigestion. Dietary sources of magnesium include whole grains, legumes, broccoli, squash, dairy products and almonds.
The upper-limit intake of magnesium for adults 19 years of age and older is 350 mg per day. When taken in adequate amounts, magnesium is absorbed in the small intestines and excreted through the kidneys.
Manganese GluconateManganese is a nutritionally essential mineral element. Rich sources of manganese include whole grains, nuts, leafy vegetables, and teas. Foods high in phytic acid, such as beans, seeds, nuts, whole grains, and soy products, or foods high in oxalic acid, such as cabbage, spinach, and sweet potatoes, may slightly inhibit manganese absorption. Intake of other minerals, including iron, calcium, and phosphorus, have been found to limit of manganese.
A number of manganese-activated enzymes play important roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol. In the brain, the manganese-activated enzyme, glutamine synthetase, converts the amino acid glutamate to glutamine. Glutamate is an excitotoxic neurotransmitter and a precursor to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Several forms of manganese are found in supplements, including manganese gluconate, manganese sulfate, manganese ascorbate, and amino acid chelates of manganese. Manganese toxicity resulting from foods alone has not been reported in humans, even though certain vegetarian diets could provide up to 20 mg/day of manganese.
Milk Protein IsolateAs one of three forms of casein protein, milk protein isolate occurs naturally in cow's milk and includes a combination of casein and whey proteins. Casein protein composes about 80 percent of the protein in cow's milk while whey protein makes up the remaining 20 percent.
Milk Protein Isolate is produced by a proprietary micro filtration process that purifies the milk protein found in milk into a highly concentrated form. The low fat content, low lactose content, excellent solubility, and milk-like flavor make it a unique ingredient for low fat and low carbohydrate product applications and nutritional supplements.
NiacinamideVitamin B3 is made up of niacin (nicotinic acid) and its amide, niacinamide, and can be found in yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, and cereal grains. Dietary tryptophan is also converted to niacin in the body. Vitamin B3 is often found in combination with other B vitamins including thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, and folic acid.
There's been specualtion that Niacinamide has positive effect on the HDL/choelsterol ratio, however, research indicates it is Niacine, not Niacinamide, that affects cholesterol levels.
Niacin decreases the rate of hepatic synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) while raising high-density lipoprotein. This has led to a lowering of serum cholesterol by 10 to 15% and triglycerides by 20 to 30%. Niacinamide is not effective in lowering serum cholesterol.
High doses of Niacin can cause an uncomfortable flushing effect where the skin of the upper body reddens and become itchy due to histamine release. Tolerance after a few weeks of treatment usually develops and the flushin effect desreases.
Niacinamide is often sold in supplement form as no-flush Niacin, but it doesn't have the same positive lipid effects.
Phytonadione (Vitamin K)Phytonadione is a man-made form of Vitamin K (or Vitamin K1). It's a fat-soluble vitamin stable to air and moisture but that decomposes in sunlight.
Vitamin K is essential for the functioning of several proteins involved in blood clotting. The ability to bind calcium ions (Ca2+) is required for the activation of the seven vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, or proteins, in the coagulation cascade. Coagulation cascade refers to a series of events, each dependent on the other, that stop bleeding through clot formation.
Vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors are synthesized in the liver. Consequently, severe liver disease results in lower blood levels of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors and an increased risk of uncontrolled bleeding (hemorrhage).
Vitamin K deficiency is uncommon in healthy adults. Adults at risk of vitamin K deficiency include those taking vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant drugs and individuals with significant liver damage or disease. Additionally, individuals with disorders of fat malabsorption may be at increased risk of vitamin K deficiency.
Potassium CitratePotassium citrate is a potassium salt of citric acid. It is a white, slightly hygroscopic crystalline powder, odorless, and with a saline taste. As a food additive, potassium citrate is used to regulate acidity.
Potassium citrate is rapidly absorbed when take orally and is excreted in the urine as the carbonate. It is effective in reducing the pain and frequency of urination caused by highly acidic urine. It is used as a non-irritating diuretic.
Potassium citrate is an effective way to treat/manage gout and arrhythmia with hypokalemic patients. It is also used to treat kidney stones. A study of 500 patients with recurrent stones found that it reduced the frequency of incidents. It is also used in many soft drinks as a buffering agent.
Potassium IodidePotassium Iodide (KI) is getting a lot of press these day (Mar 2010) due to the nuclear accident in Japan. This is because the effectiveness of Potassium Iodide as a blocker of thyroid radioiodine uptake is well established. When administered in the recommended dose, Potassium Iodide is effective in reducing the risk of thyroid cancer in individuals or populations at risk for inhalation or ingestion of radioiodines. Potassium Iodide floods the thyroid with non-radioactive iodine and prevents the uptake of the radioactive molecules, which are subsequently excreted in the urine.
Potassium iodide ( KI) works only to prevent the thyroid from uptaking radioactive iodine. It is not a general radioprotective agent.
As for other uses, Potassium Iodide is used to loosen and break up mucus in the airways. Along with antithyroid medicines, Potassium Iodide is used to prepare the thyroid gland for surgical removal and to treat certain overactive thyroid conditions.
It works by shrinking the size of the thyroid gland and decreasing the amount of thyroid hormones produced.
It may also be used to treat a certain type of fungal skin infection (sporotrichosis).
From my searches, it's use as a general 'health support' supplement don't seem to be documented anywhere.
Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6)Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a water-soluble supplement used to treat pyridoxine deficiencies. It's one of the forms of vitamin B6, used as the hydrochloride salt in the prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and as an antidote in cycloserine and isoniazid poisoning.
It functions as a coenzyme essential for the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids, the conversion of tryptophan to niacin, the breakdown of glycogen to glucose 1-phosphate, the production of antibodies, the formation of heme in hemoglobin, the formation of hormones important in brain function, the proper absorption of vitamin B12, the production of hydrochloric acid and magnesium, and the maintenance of the balance of sodium and potassium, which regulates body fluids and the functioning of the nervous and musculoskeletal systems.
Found in meats (especially organ meats), whole-grain cereals, soybeans, peanuts, wheat germ, and brewer's yeast. Milk and green vegetables supply smaller amounts. Vitamin B6 is safe for adults in dosages up to 200mg per day. Taking more for a prolonged period of time could result in damage to the sensory nerves. The list of possible mild side effects includes numbness, drowsiness, loss of coordination, poor circulation, low serum folic acid levels, photosensitivity and irritation at the injection site if injected. Usually, side effects will stop once you stop taking the supplement, but some symptoms can linger.
Pyridoxine hydrochloride has been used to treat a variety symptoms, including pesticide poisoning, premenstrual symptoms, hyperoxaluria type I, morning sickness, carpal tunnel syndrome, sideroblastic anemia associated with high serum iron, tardive dyskinesia, acne, asthma, alcohol intoxication, hemorrhoids and stimulation of appetite.
Several drugs interfere with the use of pyridoxine hydrochloride, notably isoniazid and penicillamine, and supplements of the vitamin are recommended with the use of these drugs. The need for increased amounts of is related to protein intake and occurs during pregnancy, lactation, exposure to radiation, cardiac failure, aging, and use of oral contraceptives.
Info links for Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6)
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is naturally available in a variety of foods and may be used as a preservative or additive in some packaged foods. Riboflavin helps the body by stimulating the metabolism and assisting in digestion and nutrient absorbtion.
Sources of riboflavin include milk, soybeans, most leafy green vegetables, cheese, fish, meat, and nuts. Those who eat a healthy diet do not typically need to supplement with riboflavin.
Though riboflavin deficiency is rare, it can result in cracked lips, ulcers in the mouth, an inflamed tongue, and sore throat. Eyes may get bloodshot, and on blood tests, low iron levels or anemia is often found. Riboflavin deficiency is most common in people with diseases of the bowel, HIV, in people with eating disorders, and in women taking birth control pills. The recommended daily amount (RDA) is 1.3 mg for men and 1.1 mg for women.
Info links for Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
- Riboflavin: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
- Riboflavin - Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University
Sodium AscorbateSodium ascorbate is a more bioavailable form of vitamin C and an alternative to taking ascorbic acid. As a food additive, it's used as an antioxidant and an acidity regulator. Bioavailability refers to the degree to which a nutrient becomes available to the target tissue after it has been administered. 1,000 mg of sodium ascorbate contains 889 mg of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and 111 mg of sodium.
Ascorbic acid is a sugar acid with antioxidant properties. Ascorbic acid and its sodium, potassium, and calcium salts are commonly used as antioxidant food additives. Birds and most mammals produce ascorbic acid in the liver where the enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase converts glucose to ascorbic acid. Humans, some other primates, and guinea pigs are not able to make L-gulonolactone oxidase because of a genetic mutation and are therefore unable to make ascorbic acid.
Info links for Sodium Ascorbate
Sodium HexametaphosphateSodium Hexametaphosphate (aka sodium metaphosphate, sodium polyphosphate, and Graham's salt)is an emulsifier, sequestering agent, and texturizer used in breakfast cereals, angel food cake, flaked fish, ice cream, ice milk, bottled beverages, reconstituted lemon juice, puddings, processed cheeses, artificially sweetened jellies, potable water supplies to prevent scale formation and corrosion, and in pumping pickle for curing hams and shoulders, etc.
Because it keeps calcium, magnesium, and iron salts in solution, it is an excellent water softener and detergent. Sodium hexametaphosphate is also a whitening ingredient included in some whitening toothpastes and mouthwashes.
Info links for Sodium Hexametaphosphate
Sodium Molybdate (Molybdenum)Sodium Molybdate is added to foods to provide a source of Molybdenum.
Molybdenum is an essential trace element for virtually all life forms. It functions as a cofactor for a number of enzymes that catalyze important chemical transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. Molybdenum-dependent enzymes are not only required for human health, but also for the health of our ecosystem.
The only documented case of acquired molybdenum deficiency occurred in a patient with Crohn's disease on long-term total parenteral nutrition without molybdenum added. The patient developed rapid heart and respiratory rates, headache, night blindness, and ultimately became comatose. The patient's condition improved and the amino acid intolerance disappeared when the diet was supplemented with molybdenum at 160 mcg/day.
Molybdenum in nutritional supplements is generally in the form of sodium molybdate or ammonium molybdate.
Sodium selenite (Selenium)Sodium selenite is a salt, a colourless solid, and the most common water-soluble selenium compound. Because selenium is an essential element, sodium selenite is an ingredient in some food supplements.
The US Food and Drug Administration approved a selenium supplement to animal diets. The most common form used is sodium selenite supplements added to pet foods.
Selenium is a trace element essential in small amounts. Humans and animals require selenium for the function of a number of enzymes known as selenoproteins. At least 25 selenoproteins have been identified, but the metabolic functions have been identified for only about one-half of them.
Insufficient selenium intake results in decreased activity of the glutathione peroxidases as well as some other thioredoxin reductase and thyroid deiodinases. Even when severe, isolated selenium deficiency does not usually result in obvious clinical illness. However, selenium-deficient individuals appear to be more susceptible to additional physiological stresses.
Info links for Sodium selenite (Selenium)
Sucralose (Splenda)Sucralose is a zero calorie artificial sweetener discovered in 1976 and is 600 times sweeter than sugar. The human body doesn't metabolize sucralose, thus it does not any usable calories or energy. It is made from sugar by substituting three alcohol groups on the sugar molecule with three chlorine atoms to create sucralose.
Sucralose belongs to a class of compounds known as organochlorides (chlorocarbons). Some organochlorides are toxic. Sucralose is not known to be toxic in small quantities and doesn't accumulate in fat like chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Sucralose is an ingredient in more than 4,500 food and beverage products. Sucralose is one of two artificial sweeteners ranked as "safe" by the consumer advocacy group Center for Science in the Public Interest. Results from over 100 studies in the FDA approval process indicated a lack of risk associated with sucralose intake. Some adverse effects, however, were seen at doses significantly higher than the estimated daily intake of 1 mg/lb/day. The bulk of sucralose ingested is not absorbed by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and is directly excreted in the feces. The amount that is absorbed from the GI tract (11 - 27%) is mostly removed by the kidneys and eliminated in the urine with an estimate 20-30% of the absorbed sucralose being metabolized.
A study found evidence that doses of Splenda equivalent to sucralose at 1.1 to 11 mg/kg reduced the amount of good bacteria in the intestines of rats by up to 50%, increased pH level in the intestines, contributed to increases in bodyweight, and affected the levels of P-glycoprotein. These effects have not been reported in humans. Other studies suggest sucralose as a possible trigger for some migraine patients and linked large doses of sucralose to DNA damage in mice.
Allergic reactions to sucralose have not been documented, but individuals sensitive to maltodextrin should consult a physician about using any sweeteners containing this bulking agent.
Info links for Sucralose (Splenda)
- A Report on Sucralose from the Food Sanitation Council
- Sucralose: An Overview
- Toxicity of sucralose in humans: a review
- Sucralose safety 'scientifically sound': Expert panel
Thiamine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B1)Vitamin B1, also called thiamine or thiamin, is one of 8 B vitamins. All the B vitamins help the body convert food into fuel. These B complex vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and protein and are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function and are necessary for optimal brain health.
All the B vitamins are water-soluble. This means the body does not store them.
Thiamine is named B1 because it was the first B vitamin discovered. It's found in plants and animals and plays a crucial role in certain metabolic reactions. It's required for the body to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which every cell of the body uses for energy.
Thiamine deficiency is rare, but can occur when a person gets most of their calories from sugar or alcohol. People deficient in thiamine can experience fatigue, irritability, depression and abdominal discomfort. People with thiamine deficiency also have difficulty digesting carbohydrates. As a result, a substance called pyruvic acid builds up in their bloodstream, causing a loss of mental alertness, difficulty breathing, and even heart damage.
Most foods contain small amounts of thiamine. Large amounts are found in pork and organ meats. Other good dietary sources of thiamine include whole-grain or enriched cereals and rice, legumes, wheat germ, bran, brewer's yeast, and blackstrap molasses. Thiamine is easily destroyed when exposed to heat, so cooking acan reduce thiamine levels in food.
Daily recommendations for dietary vitamin B1:
Newborns - 6 months: 0.2mg
Infants 7 months - 1 year: 0.3mg
Children 1 - 3 years: 0.5mg
Children 4 - 8 years: 0.6mg
Children 9 - 13 years: 0.9mg
Males 14 - 18 years: 1.2mg
Females 14 - 18 years: 1mg
Adult Males 19 years and older: 1.2mg
Females 19 years and older: 1.1mg
Pregnant females: 1.4mg
Breastfeeding females: 1.5 mg
A daily dose of 50 - 100 mg is often taken as a supplement. Thiamine appears safe even at high doses; however, you should talk to your doctor before taking a large amount.
Vitamin A Palmitate (Retinyl palmitate)Vitamin A Palmitate (aka Retinyl palmitate) is found naturally and is also manufactured from Vitamin A acetate, a synthetic organic chemical. The Vitamin A molecule is very unstable by itself. To create a more stable configuration, it is reacted with methyl palmitate. This is called Vitamin A Palmitate, which is considered a synthetic product. It is the only form of Vitamin A used to fortify dairy products.
Natural sources of Vitamin A Palmitate include most dairy products (eggs, milk, cheese, butter), liver, and fish. Dark green vegetables, like spinach or kale, or orange vegetables like carrots contain provitamin A, a class of compounds called carotenoids, which are involved in photosynthesis. B-Carotene is the most important of these compounds.
Vitamin A Palmitate is a synthetic alternative for vitamin A supplements. Intake shouldn't exceed the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Overdosing preformed Vitamin A forms can lead to adverse physiological reactions. RDA ranged from 400iu for infants up to 1,300iu for pregnant women.
Vitamin A Palmitate is used as an antioxidant and a source of vitamin A added to many dairy products. It's also used in some topically applied skin care products. After its absorption into the skin, Vitamin A Palmitate is converted to retinol, and ultimately to retinoic acid (the active form of vitamin A present in Retin-A).
Info links for Vitamin A Palmitate (Retinyl palmitate)
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)Vitamin D is well-known for helping to maintain calcium levels and in building strong bones. Vitamin D deficiency can increase the risk of osteoporosis. Elderly who don't get enough vitamin D have weaker muscles and are more prone to falls, which could further increase the risk of fractures.
Recent research has revealed new roles of vitamin D. Many types of cells in the body can use vitamin D to help regulate critical functions. A vitamin D deficiency could result in potential problems such as a weakened immune system and an increased risk of cancer. Impaired immune function could lead to a greater risk of autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis, and heighten succeptibility to some infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Studies also suggest low levels of vitamin D may be linked to heart disease. Other stidies have determined vitamin D plays a role in controlling blood pressure and preventing artery damage.
There is no solid consensus on the amoutn of vitamin D needed. The human body produces vitamin D3 when skin is exposed to sunlight. However, in our indoor oriented world, most indoviduals (especially those in northern climates) don't get enough sun exposure for their bosy to produce adequate vitamin D3. When it comes to supplementation, indoviduals have taken up to 10,000IU daily without adverse effect. Between 2,000IU - 6,000IU appears to be adequate supplementation for the majority of the population.
If you decide to supplement, look for vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) as opposed to vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Vitamin D3 has much more bioavailability than vitamin D2.
I happen to be a big proponent of vitamin D. My wife, especially, has found significant improvement in her seasonal affective disorder by supplementing with vitamin D3.
Info links for Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)
- Vitamin D3 and Calcium
- The Skinny On Vitamin D
- The anabolic effects of vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor
Whey Protein IsolateWhey is the liquid that remains after straining of curdled milk. The hey solution consists of vitamins, minerals, lactose, protein, and trace amounts of fat. Processing of whey to remove the sugars and fats leaves the highly concentrated whey protein solution.
One of three main forms of whey protein, whey protein isolate contains greater than 90 percent milk proteins. Protein derived from whey protein isolate is one of the most biologically available sources of amino acids, because it is easily digested, adsorbed, and assimilated for muscle building.
Info links for Whey Protein Isolate
- Creatine and Whey Protein Supplements
- Effect of Whey Protein Isolate on Oxidative Stress, Exercise
- Milk Proteins
Zinc GluconateZinc gluconate is another form of zinc used to make zinc supplements. Amino acid chelates of zinc may be the best form of zinc supplementation, but they can be expensive. SZinc sulfate has been known to cause stomach irritation. Zinc gluconate is a good type and is absorbed well.
The RDA for zinc is 15 milligrams for men, 12 for women, 3 for infants, 10 for children ages 1 to 10, 15 for pregnant women and 16 to 19 for those nursing. It's recommended that adults, especially athletes, take 30 milligrams daily. Dosages of up to 50 milligrams a day are considered safe, but higher levels aren't recommended. Older people don't absorb zinc as well and thue might need more.
It's also suggested that you supplement with copper along with zinc, about 1 milligram of copper for every 10mgs of zinc. Taking 50 to 200 micrograms of selenium is suggested as well.
The best food sources for zinc include brewers yeast and wheat brand or germ (this may be the reason that many bodybuilders have had good results with these), whole grains and oysters.
Testosterone is known to be closely interrelated with zinc. Although research still needs to be done, it appears zinc may govern testosterone metabolism at the cellular level. It is also thought to control the metabolism of testosterone in the prostate.
Double blind studies have shown that zinc can increase blood levels of testosterone and the follicle-stimulating hormone in men with just very mildly deficient zinc
levels. Males with just mild zinc deficiency will increase their plasma levels of testosterone with zinc supplementation. For about 25 cents a week you can take what may be the most powerful legal and natural 'anabolic' supplement.
Another aspect of zinc is it's role in glucose tolerance. In tests with rats, when zinc is removed from their diet, glucose intolerance develops. In human studies of diabetics, it has been shown that many have problems absorbing zinc and over excrete it as well.
Info links for Zinc Gluconate
Where to buy Myoplex Original (Chocolate Fudge)Below are links to online stores selling Myoplex Original (Chocolate Fudge) and the date the link was added. The older the link, the more likely you'll click through to find the supplement is no longer available. If you're a ProhormoneDB member, you can add buy links to help out the community!
|Natural Body INC Myoplex Life 20 Packs - $33.99 (10/25/2011)|
A1 Supplements, Myoplex RTD 12 Pack - $39.95 (4/12/2011)
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