Prohormone & Supplement Ingredients:

Vanadyl Sulfate

Vanadyl Sulfate is the most popular and common form of vanadium, an element in the body that is found in foods such as pepper, dill, radishes, eggs, vegetable oils, buckwheat, and oats.

The physiological role of vanadium in humans is unknown, but it seems that the substance is needed for normal growth and development. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to vanadium because of its supposed insulin-mimicking activities. The precise mechanism by which vanadium mimics the effects of insulin is uncertain. The most popular view has been that vanadium works as a cofactor that alters the concentration and effectiveness of several enzymes that are involved in the breakdown and distribution of glucose molecules and amino acids.

The lack of research into the specific methodology and structure of vanadium has left much up to speculation. Workout supplement suppliers have taken advantage of this condition by making bold claims.

Unfortunately, vanadyl sulfate doesn't live up to its claims. The theoretical benefits of increased amounts of insulin were extrapolated from the role of insulin after a large meal. During exercise, the role of insulin in the body is diminished. Insulin is no longer the primary regulator of glucose uptake. During exercise, more glucose is made available to the muscle cell due to an increased blood flow. The rapidly moving blood transports the glucose molecules and enables the rapidly consumed supply to be replenished as needed. An increase in insulin is simply not necessary.

In addition to overestimating the potential benefits of increased insulin like activity through vanadyl sulfate, it also appears that proponents of the supplement also overlooked some of the potential dangers. Insulin does much more than enable glucose and amino acid uptake in muscle cells; it is one of the body's primary regulatory hormones. In addition, insulin also helps to synthesize both protein and fat molecules.

In December of 1996, a research team at the School of Pharmacy at the University of Otago in New Zealand performed a study on the effects of oral vanadyl sulfate on body composition and athletic performance. In the twelve week, double-blind placebo controlled test, the results were astounding. To test the strength gains of the subjects, a strength baseline was established at the beginning of the study. In addition, subjects were measured for body fat percentage and overall lean body mass. At the beginning of the study, the strength of all participants was assessed using the 1 and 10 repetition maximum for bench press and leg press. Throughout the twelve week period, subjects worked out with a partner. One subject took vanadyl sulfate (.5mg/day) and the other took a placebo. At the end of the double-blind study, the researchers concluded that with regard to side effects, oral vanadyl sulfate appeared to be well tolerated, however, they also concluded that "oral vanadyl sulfate was ineffective in changing body composition in weight -training athletes".

Specifically, both groups gained (.07%) body fat and had almost identical strength gains.
Supplements with this ingredient:
1,4 Andro Maxx (Prohormones)
Androdrol (Prohormones)
EP Stane (Prohormones)
Epi Maxx (Prohormones)
Epitest (Prohormones)
Halotren (Prohormones)
RA Strength/Shred Formula (Prohormones)
RA Ultra Sphinx Pre Workout Formula (Pre-workout)
Tri-Methyl X.X.XXV Limited Edition (Prohormones)
Tri-Methyl Xtreme 3.15 (Prohormones)

Links to additional information on Vanadyl Sulfate
Vanadyl sulfate (Added on 1/20/2011)

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