Prohormone & Supplement Ingredients:

Trans Resveratrol

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of polyphenol, and a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi.

Resveratrol is currently a topic of numerous animal and human studies into its effects. The effects of resveratrol on the lifespan of many model organisms remain controversial, with uncertain effects in fruit flies, nematode worms, and short-lived fish. In mouse and rat experiments, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering and other beneficial cardiovascular effects of resveratrol have been reported. Most of these results have yet to be replicated in humans.

In the only positive human trial, extremely high doses (35 g) of resveratrol in a proprietary formulation designed to enhance its bioavailability have been necessary to significantly lower blood sugar. Despite mainstream press alleging resveratrol's anti-aging effects, there is little present scientific basis for the application of these claims to mammals.

Resveratrol is found in the skin of red grapes and is a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol has also been produced by chemical synthesis or by biotechnological synthesis (metabolic engineered microorganisms) and is sold as a nutritional supplement derived primarily from Japanese knotweed.

Bioavailability
Although trans-resveratrol appears to be well-absorbed by humans when taken orally, its bioavailability is relatively low due to its rapid metabolism and elimination. Resveratrol metabolites are primarily detected upon oral exposure to trans-resveratrol. When six healthy men and women took an oral dose of 25 mg of trans-resveratrol, only traces of the unchanged resveratrol were detected in plasma. Plasma concentrations of resveratrol and metabolites peaked around 60 minutes later.

A study in 12 healthy men administered an oral dose of 25 mg of trans-resveratrol per 70 kg of body weight reported that serum concentration of resveratrol and metabolites peaked at 30 minutes after administration. Results of another study suggested that the bioavailability of resveratrol from grape juice, which contains mostly glucosides of resveratrol (piceid), may be even lower than that of trans-resveratrol.

Estrogenic and Anti-estrogenic Activities
Endogenous estrogens are steroid hormones synthesized by humans and other mammals; these hormones bind to estrogen receptors within cells. The estrogen-receptor complex interacts with unique sequences in DNA (estrogen response elements; EREs) to modulate the expression of estrogen-responsive genes. A compound that binds to estrogen receptors and elicits similar responses to endogenous estrogens is considered an estrogen agonist, while a compound that binds estrogen receptors but prevents or inhibits the response elicited by endogenous estrogens is considered an estrogen antagonist.

The chemical structure of resveratrol is very similar to that of the synthetic estrogen agonist, diethylstilbestrol, suggesting that resveratrol might also function as an estrogen agonist. However, in cell culture experiments resveratrol acts as an estrogen agonist under some conditions and an estrogen antagonist under other conditions. In estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, resveratrol acted as an estrogen agonist in the absence of the endogenous estrogen, 17beta-estradiol, but acted as an estrogen antagonist in the presence of 17beta-estradiol.

At present, it appears that resveratrol has the potential to act as an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on such factors as cell type, estrogen receptor isoform (ER alpha or ER beta), and the presence of endogenous estrogens.
Supplements with this ingredient:
PCT Assist (Post Cycle Support)
Post Cycle 3X (Post Cycle Support)
Post Cycle Support (Post Cycle Support)
Reversitol V2 (Test Boosters/Hormone Regulation)

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